Understanding the Security Enhancements in pfSense + Update 23.09.1


The latest pfSense + update, version 23.09.1, marks a significant step forward in network security and functionality. As a widely-used open-source firewall and router software, pfSense is integral to maintaining robust network security. This update addresses several critical vulnerabilities and performance issues, reflecting the ongoing commitment to providing a secure and efficient network environment.

Key Security Fixes in 23.09.1:

  1. TCP Spoofing Vulnerability Patch (FreeBSD-SA-23:17.pf):
    One of the most critical fixes in this release is for a TCP spoofing vulnerability in the pf(4) component. This vulnerability could potentially allow an attacker to intercept and manipulate TCP traffic, posing a significant risk to data integrity and security. The update patches this flaw, thereby enhancing the security of TCP traffic management in pfSense.
  2. ZFS Data Corruption Issues (FreeBSD-EN-23:16.openzfs & FreeBSD-EN-23:18.openzfs):
    ZFS, a key file system used by pfSense, had two notable vulnerabilities that have been addressed in this update. One issue led to potential data corruption, and the other caused high CPU usage by ZFS kernel threads. These fixes not only improve data integrity but also enhance the overall performance of systems using ZFS.
  3. OpenSSL Performance Issues (FreeBSD-EN-23:17.ossl):
    Prior to the update, the ossl(4) module’s AES-GCM implementation occasionally produced incorrect results. Since AES-GCM is widely used for encrypted communications, this fix is crucial for maintaining the confidentiality and integrity of encrypted data.
  4. Kernel Physical Memory Allocator Error (FreeBSD-EN-23:20.vm):
    The update rectified an issue with the kernel’s physical memory allocator, which previously gave incorrect results. This fix is vital for the overall stability and reliability of the pfSense system.

Implications for Network Security:

These security enhancements in the pfSense + 23.09.1 update represent critical steps in safeguarding network infrastructure. By addressing vulnerabilities ranging from TCP spoofing to data integrity in file systems and encryption modules, this update ensures that pfSense continues to offer robust defense mechanisms against a variety of cyber threats.

Furthermore, the resolution of these issues not only enhances security but also contributes to the overall performance and stability of networks utilizing pfSense. Network administrators can now rely on a more secure, efficient, and reliable system for managing their network traffic and security policies.


The 23.09.1 update for pfSense + underscores the importance of continuous vigilance and proactive measures in network security. By addressing key vulnerabilities and performance issues, pfSense maintains its position as a trusted and capable tool in the arsenal of network security professionals. Users of pfSense are encouraged to apply this update promptly to ensure their networks remain secure and efficient.

For more in-depth details about the 23.09.1 update and its full range of features and fixes, please refer to the official pfSense documentation.

This blog post outlines the security-centric aspects of the pfSense + 23.09.1 update, emphasizing its impact and importance in network security.

Effortless Upgrade to pfSense+ 23.09 on Netgate 1100: A Quick Guide

Hello, tech enthusiasts! Knud here with a must-know update for all pfSense+ users, especially those with Netgate 1100. The latest release, 23.09, is here, and it’s packed with significant changes and upgrades.

Upgrading to pfSense+ 23.09: Step-by-Step

  1. Initiate the Update: Access the pfSense+ dashboard, and click the ‘Update’ button under the ‘Version’ section.
  2. Backup Is Key: Before updating, navigate to ‘Diagnostics’ then ‘Backup & Restore’ for a necessary backup.
  3. Patience Pays Off: Expect the update to take around 15 minutes. So, relax, and let it complete.

What’s New in 23.09?

  1. PHP Upgrade: PHP has been upgraded to version 8.2.11, ensuring better performance and security【11†source】.
  2. Operating System Upgrade: The base system now uses a more recent point on FreeBSD 14-CURRENT【11†source】.
  3. Improved SCTP Support: Enhancements in PF for firewall rules, NAT, and logging, particularly for SCTP packets【11†source】.
  4. OpenSSL Upgrade: A significant jump from 1.1.1t to 3.0.12, bringing major API and ABI changes, and deprecating weak algorithms【15†source】.
  5. Kea DHCP Server: A new, opt-in feature preview for IPv4 and IPv6 DHCP services【11†source】.
  6. NVMe Storage Device Driver Change: The default driver switched from nvd(4) to nda(4), impacting swap configurations【15†source】.
  7. Security Enhancements: OpenSSL 3.0.x no longer supports SHA1 certificates, impacting OpenVPN and other services【15†source】.

Post-Update Steps:

Once updated, perform another backup to ensure your settings are current.

Final Thoughts:

Upgrading your pfSense+ system to version 23.09 is straightforward but requires careful steps. Remember, patience is crucial during the upgrade process for a smooth transition. Enjoy the new features and improved performance!

Cheers to efficient networking,
Knud ;O)

Enhancing Your Network Security with pfBlockerNG-devel: A Quick Guide

Are you concerned about the security of your home network? Worried about malicious websites, ads, and unwanted content infiltrating your online experience? Look no further than pfBlockerNG-devel, a powerful package for pfSense that allows you to take control of your network’s security by implementing various blocking mechanisms. In this guide, we’ll walk you through the installation and key configuration steps to get the most out of pfBlockerNG-devel without overwhelming you with technical details.


To get started, open up your pfSense dashboard and navigate to the System Package Manager. Here, you’ll find a list of available packages. Search for “pfBlockerNG-devel” and install it. Once the installation is complete, you’ll be guided through a wizard that will assist you in setting up pfBlockerNG.

Initial Configuration

After installation, ensure that you enable “floating rules” and “kill states.” These settings are important for the proper functioning of pfBlockerNG.

GeoIP Blocking

One powerful feature of pfBlockerNG-devel is the ability to block traffic based on geographical locations. If there are countries you prefer not to have contact with, you can easily set up inbound blocking rules for them. This adds an extra layer of security to your network.

DNSBL (DNS Blocking)

DNSBL, or DNS Blocking, is an essential tool to prevent access to malicious, ads, and unwanted websites. pfBlockerNG-devel supports this feature by allowing you to add various blacklists. However, it’s important not to go overboard, as blocking too much might hinder your internet usage. Consider enabling lists like “ads_basic,” “malicious,” “easylist,” and “firebog_malicious” under DNSBL groups.

Moreover, the “shalalist” category offers site-blocking options for aggressive, cost traps, drugs, finance, gambling, and spyware-related websites. The “ut1” category includes aggressive, dangerous sites, DDOS, drugs, gambling, malware, phishing, sects, and cheater-related sites. Be selective in your choices to maintain optimal internet usability.

IP Blocking

In the IP blocking section, you can prevent outbound traffic to specific IP addresses. This is useful for devices that may have IP addresses hardcoded in their software, bypassing your DNS. Prioritize blocking known malicious IPs by using the PRI1 and TOR deny outbound lists. Additionally, maintain a whitelist to permit outbound traffic to trusted IPs.

Regular Updates

Remember, changes you make within pfBlockerNG-devel need an update to take effect. Go to “Firewall” and select “pfBlockerNG Update” to ensure your settings are current.

DNS Provider and Security

For enhanced security, consider configuring your external DNS provider. One recommended option is Quad9, known for its comprehensive blocklists and secondary DNS service. Quad9 not only blocks potentially harmful sites but also secures your DNS requests against potential fakes. This extra layer of protection prevents malicious actors from redirecting you to counterfeit websites.


Enhancing your network security with pfBlockerNG-devel doesn’t have to be overwhelming. By following this quick guide, you can set up an effective security solution for your home network. Remember to strike a balance between protection and usability, and stay updated with the latest threat intelligence to keep your online experience safe and smooth.

Optimizing Network Performance: A Quick Guide to Checking Your pfSense Dashboard

In today’s fast-paced digital world, a reliable and speedy internet connection is crucial. If you’re experiencing a drop in your internet speed, there might be a simple solution lurking within your network setup. In this brief guide, we’ll show you how to quickly diagnose potential issues using your pfSense dashboard, ensuring that your network is operating at its full potential.

Step 1: Access Your pfSense Dashboard

To get started, make sure you have access to your pfSense dashboard. You can usually do this by opening a web browser and entering the IP address of your pfSense router. Once you’re logged in, follow these steps.

Step 2: Check Interface Connections

Navigate to the “Interfaces” section of your pfSense dashboard. Here, you’ll find an overview of how your ports are connected. It’s essential to confirm that all ports are configured to their maximum speed. In a network setup with a maximum of 1000baseT full-duplex, ensure that all ports are set to this speed for optimal performance.

Step 3: Verify Port Speeds

If you notice a sudden drop in your internet speed, the first thing to check is whether all ports are still operating at their fastest speed. A simple misconfiguration can cause ports to revert to lower speeds, which can drastically impact your network’s performance. If any ports are not set to the maximum speed, adjust their settings accordingly.

Step 4: Monitor CPU and Memory Usage

Moving on to the pfSense dashboard, keep an eye on the CPU and memory usage. Excessive resource consumption can lead to slowdowns and reduced network performance. Ideally, both metrics should remain within acceptable ranges. If you notice unusually high CPU or memory usage, investigate further to identify any unnecessary processes or activities that might be causing the strain.

Step 5: Streamline Package Installation

While it might be tempting to install various packages on your router/firewall, remember that each added package consumes resources. To maintain optimal performance, only install the packages that you genuinely need. Unnecessary packages can eat up valuable CPU and memory, potentially leading to network bottlenecks and slower speeds.


A quick visit to your pfSense dashboard can often reveal the underlying causes of a drop in internet speed. By ensuring that all ports are configured correctly, monitoring CPU and memory usage, and being selective about the packages you install, you can maintain a high-performing network that meets your needs.

Remember, even the most advanced network setups can encounter issues, but with a little vigilance and these simple steps, you can keep your network running smoothly and enjoy a seamless online experience.

Strengthen Your Network Security with Essential pfSense Packages

Title: Strengthen Your Network Security with Essential pfSense Packages


In today’s digital age, network security is paramount for safeguarding sensitive data and protecting against various cyber threats. pfSense, an open-source firewall and router platform, offers a wide range of packages to enhance the security of your network. In this blog post, we will explore four powerful pfSense packages – pfBlockerNG-devel, Service Watchdog, System Patches, and Tailscale – that can fortify your network defenses and ensure a safer online environment for your organization or home network.

  1. pfBlockerNG-devel: The Ultimate DNS Firewall

One of the most critical aspects of network security is controlling and filtering DNS traffic. pfBlockerNG-devel is an advanced package for pfSense that acts as a DNS firewall, allowing you to block malicious domains, advertisements, and other unwanted content. With its versatile features, pfBlockerNG-devel enables you to create custom blocklists, white-lists, and even implement IP address and geo-blocking rules. By leveraging DNSBL (DNS Block List) technology, this package keeps your network safe from phishing attempts, malware distribution, and other cyber threats.

  1. Service Watchdog: Ensuring Uninterrupted Services

In a robust network infrastructure, it’s essential to maintain uptime and availability of critical services. Service Watchdog is a pfSense package designed to monitor and automatically restart services that may experience failures. Whether it’s a web server, VPN, or any other service, Service Watchdog constantly monitors their status and takes corrective actions when issues arise. By implementing this package, you can minimize service disruptions, thwart potential downtime, and ensure seamless operation of vital services.

  1. System Patches: Keeping Up with Security Updates

Staying up-to-date with security patches is crucial in defending against vulnerabilities and exploits. System Patches is a pfSense package that simplifies the process of applying system-level patches, including security updates and bug fixes. It ensures that your pfSense installation is current and fortified against known security threats. Regularly updating your pfSense system with System Patches significantly reduces the risk of potential breaches and enhances overall network security.

  1. Tailscale: Securely Connecting Remote Networks

In today’s work environment, remote connectivity is more critical than ever. Tailscale, a modern and easy-to-use VPN solution, provides secure and private network connections for remote devices. As a pfSense package, Tailscale allows you to set up a secure mesh network, ensuring that authorized devices can access resources securely from anywhere, without exposing them to the open internet. Tailscale uses strong encryption and authentication methods, making it an excellent choice for organizations seeking a safe and reliable VPN solution.


In conclusion, securing your network is a continuous process that requires the right tools and strategies. By leveraging pfSense packages like pfBlockerNG-devel, Service Watchdog, System Patches, and Tailscale, you can significantly enhance your network security posture. These packages enable you to fortify your defenses against malicious content, ensure uninterrupted service availability, stay up-to-date with security patches, and securely connect remote networks.

As cyber threats continue to evolve, it is essential to adapt your network security measures accordingly. By incorporating these powerful pfSense packages into your infrastructure, you are taking proactive steps to safeguard your network and protect your sensitive data from potential cyber attacks. Remember, network security is a shared responsibility, and continuous vigilance is key to maintaining a safe and resilient network environment.

Safeguarding Your Digital Oasis: The Importance of Network Segmentation and Robust Security

Title: Safeguarding Your Digital Oasis: The Importance of Network Segmentation and Robust Security


In our interconnected world, the proliferation of Internet of Things (IoT) devices and the need for guest access has become increasingly common. However, the convenience comes with potential security risks that should not be ignored. In this blog post, we will emphasize the critical importance of separating IoT devices from your private network, implementing robust security measures, and maintaining up-to-date systems to create a secure digital oasis for your home or business.

  1. The Significance of Network Segmentation

Isolating IoT devices from your private network is a fundamental security practice. IoT devices often have vulnerabilities, and if compromised, they can become a gateway for hackers to access your personal data and network. By creating a separate network for these devices, you mitigate the risk of unauthorized access and protect your sensitive information.

  1. Implementing Robust Security Measures

Having a strong and well-configured firewall is paramount to safeguarding your network. A firewall acts as a gatekeeper, monitoring and controlling incoming and outgoing traffic, preventing malicious entities from gaining entry to your network. Additionally, utilizing intrusion detection and prevention systems (IDPS) adds an extra layer of security, alerting you to potential threats in real-time.

  1. Securing Guest Access

Offering guest Wi-Fi access is a common courtesy, but it should never jeopardize your private network’s security. It is essential to create a separate guest network with strong encryption and a unique password. Restricting guest access to the internet only ensures that their devices are isolated from your private network, safeguarding your data and devices from unauthorized access.

  1. Keeping Systems Up-to-Date

Maintaining regular updates for your computers, router, and firewall is a crucial practice in network security. Software developers frequently release updates to address security vulnerabilities and enhance performance. By staying current with these updates, you minimize the risk of potential exploits and ensure your network remains robust against emerging threats.

  1. Strengthening Wi-Fi Security

Securing your Wi-Fi access point is vital to prevent unauthorized access to your network. Enable WPA3 encryption, which offers the highest level of Wi-Fi security available, and use a strong, unique password that combines uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, and special characters. Regularly change your Wi-Fi password to further enhance security.

  1. Guest Network Isolation

To ensure guest privacy and protect your network from any misconfigurations, enable client isolation on your guest network. This feature prevents devices connected to the guest network from communicating with each other, limiting their access to the internet only.


As technology becomes an integral part of our lives, ensuring the security of our networks is of utmost importance. By implementing network segmentation to separate IoT devices from the private network, creating strong security measures with up-to-date systems, and securing guest access, you create a fortress of protection for your digital oasis.

Remember, safeguarding your network is an ongoing process. Continuously update your systems, maintain robust security measures, and educate yourself on emerging threats. With these practices in place, you can confidently enjoy the benefits of technology while protecting your personal data and ensuring a safe digital environment for yourself and your guests.

pfSense vs. OPNsense: Elevating Home Firewall Security


In the age of increasing cyber threats and privacy concerns, it has become crucial for individuals to secure their home networks. While most people rely on default routers provided by their Internet Service Providers (ISPs), these devices often lack essential features and may not receive timely updates. In this blog post, we will explore two powerful open-source firewall solutions, pfSense and OPNsense, and the compelling reasons to use them to fortify your home network’s security.

  1. Comprehensive Security Features

Unlike default routers, pfSense and OPNsense are specialized firewall distributions based on FreeBSD. They offer a plethora of advanced security features that go beyond the capabilities of regular consumer-grade routers. These include stateful packet filtering, intrusion detection/prevention, Virtual Private Network (VPN) support, DNS filtering, and more. By employing these robust features, users can effectively protect their networks from malicious activities and unauthorized access.

  1. Regular Updates and Security Patches

One of the most significant drawbacks of using default routers is the infrequent or non-existent software updates. Cyber threats evolve rapidly, and without timely updates, your router becomes vulnerable to new exploits and vulnerabilities. Both pfSense and OPNsense have active communities that continuously work on improving the security and stability of their platforms. Regular updates ensure that your firewall remains up-to-date with the latest security patches, safeguarding your home network from potential threats.

  1. Flexibility and Customization

One of the key advantages of open-source solutions like pfSense and OPNsense is their high level of flexibility and customization options. Users can tailor their firewall settings and rules according to their specific needs, creating a personalized security infrastructure. Whether it’s setting up VLANs for segmented networks, creating access controls, or integrating third-party plugins, the ability to customize your firewall enhances the overall security posture of your home network.

  1. Enhanced VPN Capabilities

In today’s interconnected world, the need for secure remote access is more prominent than ever. Both pfSense and OPNsense offer powerful VPN capabilities, allowing users to establish secure connections between remote devices and the home network. Whether you need to access your home resources while traveling or want to encrypt your online activities, these firewall solutions provide a reliable and straightforward VPN setup.

  1. Community Support and Documentation

pfSense and OPNsense boast vibrant communities that actively contribute to user forums, offer advice, and share their expertise. If you encounter any issues or need guidance on setting up specific features, chances are you’ll find a wealth of information through their community support channels. Furthermore, both projects maintain extensive documentation, making it easier for users to understand and utilize the vast array of features these firewalls offer.

  1. Transparency and Open-Source Assurance

Default routers typically run on closed-source firmware, making it challenging for users to scrutinize the code for potential security flaws or backdoors. In contrast, pfSense and OPNsense are open-source projects, which means their source code is publicly available for review by anyone. This level of transparency fosters trust among users, ensuring that there are no hidden vulnerabilities or privacy concerns within the firewall software.


In conclusion, upgrading from a default router to a robust and feature-rich firewall like pfSense or OPNsense can significantly enhance your home network’s security. By leveraging their comprehensive security features, receiving regular updates, and enjoying the flexibility of customization, you can better protect your network and data from potential cyber threats. Additionally, the strong community support, extensive documentation, and open-source assurance offer an added layer of confidence in the security of these firewall solutions. So, why settle for an outdated and vulnerable router when you can empower your home network with the cutting-edge protection of pfSense or OPNsense?